1Then the LORD said to Moses, 2“Tell the Israelites to turn back and camp in front of Pi Hahiroth, between Migdol and the Red Sea, near Baal Zephon. 3The king will think that the Israelites are wandering about in the country and are closed in by the desert. 4I will make him stubborn, and he will pursue you, and my victory over the king and his army will bring me honour. Then the Egyptians will know that I am the LORD.” The Israelites did as they were told.
5When the king of Egypt was told that the people had escaped, he and his officials changed their minds and said, “What have we done? We have let the Israelites escape, and we have lost them as our slaves!” 6The king got his war chariot and his army ready. 7He set out with all his chariots, including the 600 finest, commanded by their officers. 8The LORD made the king stubborn, and he pursued the Israelites, who were leaving triumphantly.9The Egyptian army, with all the horses, chariots, and drivers, pursued them and caught up with them where they were camped by the Red Sea near Pi Hahiroth and Baal Zephon.
10When the Israelites saw the king and his army marching against them, they were terrified and cried out to the LORD for help. 11They said to Moses, “Weren't there any graves in Egypt? Did you have to bring us out here in the desert to die? Look what you have done by bringing us out of Egypt! 12Didn't we tell you before we left that this would happen? We told you to leave us alone and let us go on being slaves of the Egyptians. It would be better to be slaves there than to die here in the desert.”
13Moses answered, “Don't be afraid! Stand your ground, and you will see what the LORD will do to save you today; you will never see these Egyptians again. 14The LORD will fight for you, and there is no need for you to do anything.”
15The LORD said to Moses, “Why are you crying out for help? Tell the people to move forward. 16Lift up your stick and hold it out over the sea. The water will divide, and the Israelites will be able to walk through the sea on dry ground. 17I will make the Egyptians so stubborn that they will go in after them, and I will gain honour by my victory over the king, his army, his chariots, and his drivers. 18When I defeat them, the Egyptians will know that I am the LORD.”
19The angel of God, who had been in front of the army of Israel, moved and went to the rear. The pillar of cloud also moved until it was 20between the Egyptians and the Israelites. The cloud made it dark for the Egyptians, but gave light to the people of Israel, and so the armies could not come near each other all night.
21Moses held out his hand over the sea, and the LORD drove the sea back with a strong east wind. It blew all night and turned the sea into dry land. The water was divided, 22and the Israelites went through the sea on dry ground, with walls of water on both sides. 23The Egyptians pursued them and went after them into the sea with all their horses, chariots, and drivers. 24Just before dawn the LORD looked down from the pillar of fire and cloud at the Egyptian army and threw them into a panic. 25He made the wheels of their chariots get stuck, so that they moved with great difficulty. The Egyptians said, “The LORD is fighting for the Israelites against us. Let's get out of here!”
26The LORD said to Moses, “Hold out your hand over the sea, and the water will come back over the Egyptians and their chariots and drivers.” 27So Moses held out his hand over the sea, and at daybreak the water returned to its normal level. The Egyptians tried to escape from the water, but the LORD threw them into the sea. 28The water returned and covered the chariots, the drivers, and all the Egyptian army that had followed the Israelites into the sea; not one of them was left. 29But the Israelites walked through the sea on dry ground, with walls of water on both sides.
30On that day the LORD saved the people of Israel from the Egyptians, and the Israelites saw them lying dead on the seashore. 31When the Israelites saw the great power with which the LORD had defeated the Egyptians, they stood in awe of the LORD; and they had faith in the LORD and in his servant Moses.
1Then Moses and the Israelites sang this song to the LORD:
“I will sing to the LORD, because he has won a glorious victory;
he has thrown the horses and their riders into the sea.
2The LORD is my strong defender;
he is the one who has saved me.
He is my God, and I will praise him,
my father's God, and I will sing about his greatness.
3The LORD is a warrior;
the LORD is his name.
4“He threw Egypt's army and its chariots into the sea;
the best of its officers were drowned in the Red Sea.
5The deep sea covered them;
they sank to the bottom like a stone.
6“Your right hand, LORD, is awesome in power;
it breaks the enemy in pieces.
7In majestic triumph you overthrow your foes;
your anger blazes out and burns them up like straw.
8You blew on the sea and the water piled up high;
it stood up straight like a wall;
the deepest part of the sea became solid.
9The enemy said, ‘I will pursue them and catch them;
I will divide their wealth and take all I want;
I will draw my sword and take all they have.’
10But one breath from you, LORD, and the Egyptians were drowned;
they sank like lead in the terrible water.
11“LORD, who among the gods is like you?
Who is like you, wonderful in holiness?
Who can work miracles and mighty acts like yours?
12You stretched out your right hand,
and the earth swallowed our enemies.
13Faithful to your promise, you led the people you had rescued;
by your strength you guided them to your sacred land.
14The nations have heard, and they tremble with fear;
the Philistines are seized with terror.
15The leaders of Edom are terrified;
Moab's mighty men are trembling;
the people of Canaan lose their courage.
16Terror and dread fall upon them.
They see your strength, O LORD,
and stand helpless with fear
until your people have marched past —
the people you set free from slavery.
17You bring them in and plant them on your mountain,
the place that you, LORD, have chosen for your home,
the Temple that you yourself have built.
18You, LORD, will be king for ever and ever.”
The Song of Miriam
19The Israelites walked through the sea on dry ground. But when the Egyptian chariots with their horses and drivers went into the sea, the LORD brought the water back, and it covered them.
20The prophet Miriam, Aaron's sister, took her tambourine, and all the women followed her, playing tambourines and dancing. 21Miriam sang for them:
“Sing to the LORD, because he has won a glorious victory;
he has thrown the horses and their riders into the sea.”
22Then Moses led the people of Israel away from the Red Sea into the desert of Shur. For three days they walked through the desert, but found no water. 23Then they came to a place called Marah, but the water there was so bitter that they could not drink it. That is why it was named Marah.24The people complained to Moses and asked, “What are we going to drink?” 25Moses prayed earnestly to the LORD, and the LORD showed him a piece of wood, which he threw into the water; and the water became fit to drink.
There the LORD gave them laws to live by, and there he also tested them. 26He said, “If you will obey me completely by doing what I consider right and by keeping my commands, I will not punish you with any of the diseases that I brought on the Egyptians. I am the LORD, the one who heals you.”
27Next they came to Elim, where there were twelve springs and seventy palm trees; there they camped by the water.
1The whole Israelite community set out from Elim, and on the fifteenth day of the second month after they had left Egypt, they came to the desert of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai. 2There in the desert they all complained to Moses and Aaron 3and said to them, “We wish that the LORD had killed us in Egypt. There we could at least sit down and eat meat and as much other food as we wanted. But you have brought us out into this desert to starve us all to death.”
4The LORD said to Moses, “Now I am going to make food rain down from the sky for all of you. The people must go out every day and gather enough for that day. In this way I can test them to find out if they will follow my instructions. 5On the sixth day they are to bring in twice as much as usual and prepare it.”
6So Moses and Aaron said to all the Israelites, “This evening you will know that it was the LORD who brought you out of Egypt. 7In the morning you will see the dazzling light of the LORD's presence. He has heard your complaints against him — yes, against him, because we are only carrying out his instructions.” 8Then Moses said, “It is the LORD who will give you meat to eat in the evening and as much bread as you want in the morning, because he has heard how much you have complained against him. When you complain against us, you are really complaining against the LORD.”
9Moses said to Aaron, “Tell the whole community to come and stand before the LORD, because he has heard their complaints.” 10As Aaron spoke to the whole community, they turned towards the desert, and suddenly the dazzling light of the LORD appeared in a cloud. 11The LORD said to Moses, 12“I have heard the complaints of the Israelites. Tell them that at twilight they will have meat to eat, and in the morning they will have all the bread they want. Then they will know that I, the LORD, am their God.”
13In the evening a large flock of quails flew in, enough to cover the camp, and in the morning there was dew all round the camp. 14When the dew evaporated, there was something thin and flaky on the surface of the desert. It was as delicate as frost. 15When the Israelites saw it, they didn't know what it was and asked each other, “What is it?”
Moses said to them, “This is the food that the LORD has given you to eat. 16The LORD has commanded that each of you is to gather as much of it as he needs, two litres for each member of his household.”
17The Israelites did this, some gathering more, others less. 18When they measured it, those who gathered much did not have too much, and those who gathered less did not have too little. Each had gathered just what he needed. 19Moses said to them, “No one is to keep any of it for tomorrow.” 20But some of them did not listen to Moses and saved part of it. The next morning it was full of worms and smelt rotten, and Moses was angry with them. 21Every morning each one gathered as much as he needed; and when the sun grew hot, what was left on the ground melted.
22On the sixth day they gathered twice as much food, four litres for each person. All the leaders of the community came and told Moses about it, 23and he said to them, “The LORD has commanded that tomorrow is a holy day of rest, dedicated to him. Bake today what you want to bake and boil what you want to boil. Whatever is left should be put aside and kept for tomorrow.” 24As Moses had commanded, they kept what was left until the next day; it did not spoil or get worms in it. 25Moses said, “Eat this today, because today is the Sabbath, a day of rest dedicated to the LORD, and you will not find any food outside the camp. 26You must gather food for six days, but on the seventh day, the day of rest, there will be none.”
27On the seventh day some of the people went out to gather food, but they did not find any. 28Then the LORD said to Moses, “How much longer will you people refuse to obey my commands? 29Remember that I, the LORD, have given you a day of rest, and that is why on the sixth day I will always give you enough food for two days. Everyone is to stay where he is on the seventh day and not leave his home.” 30So the people did no work on the seventh day.
31The people of Israel called the food manna. It was like a small white seed, and tasted like biscuits made with honey. 32Moses said, “The LORD has commanded us to save some manna, to be kept for our descendants, so that they can see the food which he gave us to eat in the desert when he brought us out of Egypt.” 33Moses said to Aaron, “Take a jar, put two litres of manna in it, and place it in the LORD's presence to be kept for our descendants.” 34As the LORD had commanded Moses, Aaron put it in front of the Covenant Box, so that it could be kept. 35The Israelites ate manna for the next forty years, until they reached the land of Canaan, where they settled. 36(The standard dry measure then in use equalled twenty litres.)
1The whole Israelite community left the desert of Sin, moving from one place to another at the command of the LORD. They made camp at Rephidim, but there was no water there to drink. 2They complained to Moses and said, “Give us water to drink.”
Moses answered, “Why are you complaining? Why are you putting the LORD to the test?”
3But the people were very thirsty and continued to complain to Moses. They said, “Why did you bring us out of Egypt? To kill us and our children and our livestock with thirst?”
4Moses prayed earnestly to the LORD and said, “What can I do with these people? They are almost ready to stone me.”
5The LORD said to Moses, “Take some of the leaders of Israel with you, and go on ahead of the people. Take along the stick with which you struck the Nile. 6I will stand before you on a rock at Mount Sinai. Strike the rock, and water will come out of it for the people to drink.” Moses did so in the presence of the leaders of Israel.
7The place was named Massah and Meribah, because the Israelites complained and put the LORD to the test when they asked, “Is the LORD with us or not?”
War with the Amalekites
8The Amalekites came and attacked the Israelites at Rephidim. 9Moses said to Joshua, “Pick out some men to go and fight the Amalekites tomorrow. I will stand on top of the hill holding the stick that God told me to carry.” 10Joshua did as Moses commanded him and went out to fight the Amalekites, while Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill. 11As long as Moses held up his arms, the Israelites won, but when he put his arms down, the Amalekites started winning. 12When Moses' arms grew tired, Aaron and Hur brought a stone for him to sit on, while they stood beside him and held up his arms, holding them steady until the sun went down. 13In this way Joshua totally defeated the Amalekites.
14Then the LORD said to Moses, “Write an account of this victory, so that it will be remembered. Tell Joshua that I will completely destroy the Amalekites.” 15Moses built an altar and named it “The LORD is my Banner”. 16He said, “Hold high the banner of the LORD! The LORD will continue to fight against the Amalekites for ever!”
1Moses' father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian, heard about everything that God had done for Moses and the people of Israel when he led them out of Egypt. 2So he came to Moses, bringing with him Moses' wife Zipporah, who had been left behind, 3and Gershom and Eliezer, her two sons. (Moses had said, “I have been a foreigner in a strange land”; so he had named one son Gershom.4He had also said, “The God of my father helped me and saved me from being killed by the king of Egypt”; so he had named the other son Eliezer.) 5Jethro came with Moses' wife and her two sons into the desert where Moses was camped at the holy mountain. 6He had sent word to Moses that they were coming, 7so Moses went out to meet him, bowed before him, and kissed him. They asked about each other's health and then went into Moses' tent. 8Moses told Jethro everything that the LORD had done to the king and the people of Egypt in order to rescue the Israelites. He also told him about the hardships the people had faced on the way and how the LORD had saved them. 9When Jethro heard all this, he was happy 10and said, “Praise the LORD, who saved you from the king and the people of Egypt! Praise the LORD, who saved his people from slavery! 11Now I know that the LORD is greater than all the gods, because he did this when the Egyptians treated the Israelites with such contempt.” 12Then Jethro brought an offering to be burnt whole and other sacrifices to be offered to God; and Aaron and all the leaders of Israel went with him to eat the sacred meal as an act of worship.
13The next day Moses was settling disputes among the people, and he was kept busy from morning till night. 14When Jethro saw everything that Moses had to do, he asked, “What is all this that you are doing for the people? Why are you doing this all alone, with people standing here from morning till night to consult you?”
15Moses answered, “I must do this because the people come to me to learn God's will. 16When two people have a dispute, they come to me, and I decide which one of them is right, and I tell them God's commands and laws.”
17Then Jethro said, “You are not doing it the right way. 18You will wear yourself out and these people as well. This is too much for you to do alone. 19Now let me give you some good advice, and God will be with you. It is right for you to represent the people before God and bring their disputes to him. 20You should teach them God's commands and explain to them how they should live and what they should do. 21But in addition, you should choose some capable men and appoint them as leaders of the people: leaders of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens. They must be God-fearing men who can be trusted and who cannot be bribed. 22Let them serve as judges for the people on a permanent basis. They can bring all the difficult cases to you, but they themselves can decide all the smaller disputes. That will make it easier for you, as they share your burden. 23If you do this, as God commands, you will not wear yourself out, and all these people can go home with their disputes settled.”
24Moses took Jethro's advice 25and chose capable men from among all the Israelites. He appointed them as leaders of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens. 26They served as judges for the people on a permanent basis, bringing the difficult cases to Moses but deciding the smaller disputes themselves.
27Then Moses said goodbye to Jethro, and Jethro went back home.